2013 Latest Cisco DESGN (640-864) Exam 206-210


Which item is not an SNMP operation?
A. GetNext
B. Community
C. Trap
D. Set
Correct Answer: B
Section: Management – Operations Explanation
SNMP Operations
SNMP operations focus on retrieving or modifying the value of management information, and reporting an event. They occur through message exchange over a message transport service.
Each SNMP operation has its own type of message. An SNMP message consists of a header and a protocol data unit (PDU) identifying the message type and containing further data necessary to complete the request.
The following table shows the message types that are supported by Windows Embedded CE.
GetRequest The SNMP manager uses the GetRequest message to retrieve data from the managed objects that are maintained by an SNMP agent. By using GetRequest, the manager can request the value of one or
more MIB variables, provided that the MIBs that specify the variables are supported by the agent that receives the GetRequest message.
GetNextRequest The GetNextRequest message, like the GetRequest message, is used by the SNMP service to retrieve data from a managed object that is maintained by an SNMP agent. GetNextRequest and GetRequest have the same format, but they use different operations. Unlike GetRequest, GetNextRequest does not require that the instance identifier of each variable be specified in its OID.
This operation is new for SNMPv2. It allows the SNMP manager to retrieve large amounts of information from the agent without initiating a GetNextRequest operation.
SetRequest The SNMP manager uses the SetRequest message to request that management data that is
maintained by an agent be modified. SetRequest has the same format as the GetRequest message, but it is used to write an object value, not to read one.
The SNMP service can handle requests and report network management information to one or more hosts in discrete blocks of data that are known as traps. Traps notify a network management device that an extraordinary event has occurred at an agent. When a trap condition occurs, the SNMP agent sends an SNMP-agent trap message to each of the network management stations, as specified in the trap receiver table. The following illustration shows how messages are exchanged between the SNMP agent and the SNMP service.

Which packet-switching topology approach typically requires the greatest level of expertise to implement?
A. Hub and spoke
B. Point-to-point
C. Star
D. Partial mesh
Correct Answer: D
Section: WAN VPN Explanation
Hub and spoke or star network creates a central point of failure and is a more complex network than a point to point to configuration. However, due to the level of redundant configurations the Partial Mesh configuration is more complex than any of the other choices listed.
Packet and cell switched. Connections that use virtual circuits (PVC/SVC) established by the SP. Packet-switched technologies include Frame Relay and cell-switched technologies such as ATM. ATM uses cells and provides support for multiple quality of service (QoS) classes. The virtual circuits are part of the shared ATM/Frame Relay SP backbone network. This gives the SP greater flexibility with its service offerings.
Hub-and-Spoke Topology
A star or hub-and-spoke topology provides a hub router with connections to the spoke routers through the WAN cloud. Network communication between the sites flows through the hub router. Significant WAN cost savings, lower circuit counts, and simplified management are benefits of the hub-and-spoke topology. In addition, hub-and-spoke topologies provide WAN hierarchy and can provide high availability through the use of dual routers at the hub site. A major disadvantage of this approach is that if you use a single hub router, it can represent a single point of failure. The hub-and-spoke topology can also limit the overall performance when resources are accessed through the central hub router from the spoke routers, such as with spoke-to-spoke network traffic.

The network-design process is limited by many external constraints. Which origins are of these constraints?
A. Technological, worldwide standards, social, and managerial
B. Technological, political, social, and economical
C. Technological, cost, social, and economical
D. Managerial, political, social, and economical
Correct Answer: B
Section: Design Explanation
Requirements and Constraints
Before delving into the typical topologies, it is wise to understand the overall network design process. As with any systems design effort, network design is an exercise in meeting new and old requirements while working within certain constraints. These constraints include money, labor, technology, space, and time. In addition, there may be social or political constraints, such as the mandated use of certain standards or vendors.
Economic constraints play a major role in any network design. Unless you are very fortunate, you often must compromise in the capacity of WAN links, the switching capabilities of routers, the type of interfaces used, and the level of redundancy achieved. Achieving the “best possible service at the lowest possible cost” was a design paradigm inventedtongue-in-cheek, to some extentby one network manager to satisfy both management and network users. This paradigm fails to explain how this task is achieved, other than through a carefully considered compromise, but neither does it say anything that is incorrect.
Labor effort should be of paramount concern in any network design. In this case, the first area of concern is the amount of effort and level of skill necessary to connect a new customer to the network or to expand the capacity of the network infrastructure. As a general rule, the more often a task must be executed, the more the design should focus on making that task simple and efficientin other words, the goal involves optimizing the common case. In addition to prudent network design, labor costs can also be reduced through investment in network management tools. It is noteworthy that for many networks, the capital cost is dwarfed by the ongoing charges for highly skilled support personnel. Processor speed doubles every 18 months. Nevertheless Internet traffic levels can increase at a far more rapid rate. Thus, computation is still a constraint of network design, particularly in the case of routers. Typical computational limitations that apply to network design are associated with processing of routing updates, accounting, security filtering and encryption, address translation, and even packet forwarding.
Space issues include the physically obvious, such as the cost of expensive air-conditioned points of presence (POPs) or co-location facilities. Space also includes subtler, but nonetheless important resources, such as the buffer capacity in a router or the bandwidth of a WAN link. One time constraint that affects the success of a design is the time-to-market. It is useless to design an extremely sophisticated network if the customers have gone elsewhere by the time it is operational.
Time constraints also include packet forwarding and propagation delays, which have a fundamental impact on bandwidth (in a TCP/IP environment) and response time.
Social constraints include those that may not seem sensible to achieve the major requirements of the network. These could include a mandated use of standards that are difficult to obtain, to use, or to understand. Thankfully, this has been less common since the demise of OSI. (At one time in the industry, a play on the OSI reference model included a “political” layer above the application layerthe so-called “eighth layer of networking.”) Alternatively, you may be constrained to using a certain vendor’s equipment because of a prearranged partnership agreement.
Cisco Network Topology and Design
By Khalid Raza, Mark Turner.
Sample Chapter is provided courtesy of Cisco Press.
DatE. Feb 1, 2002

What does FCAPS stand for?
A. Fault, caching, application, production, security
B. Fault, configuration, accounting, performance, security
C. Fiscal, communication, application, production, security
D. Fault, consolidation, accounting, performance, security
Correct Answer: B
Section: Management – Operations Explanation

FCAPS is the ISO Telecommunications Management Network model and framework for network
management. FCAPS is an acronym for Fault, Configuration, Accounting, Performance,
Security, the management categories into which the ISO model defines network management tasks. In
non billing organizations Accounting is sometimes replaced with Administration.

Fault management
A fault is an event that has a negative significance. The goal of fault management is to recognize, isolate, correct and log faults that occur in the network. Furthermore, it uses trend analysis to predict errors so that the network is always available. This can be established by monitoring different things for abnormal behavior. When a fault or event occurs, a network component will often send a notification to the network operator using a proprietary or open protocol such as SNMP, or at least write a message to its console for a console server to catch and log/page. This notification is supposed to trigger manual or automatic activities. For example, the gathering of more data to identify the nature and severity of the problem or to bring backup equipment on-line. Fault logs are one input used to compile statistics to determine the provided service level of individual network elements, as well as sub-networks or the whole network. They are also used to determine apparently fragile network components that require further attention. The leading Fault Management systems are EMC Smarts, CA Spectrum, HP Software, NetIQ, IBM Tivoli Netcool, TTI Telecom Netrac, CA Clarity, Objective Systems Integrators NETeXPERT etc. Fault Isolation tools like Delphi are also available, which are basically used to isolate the fault in any telecom network.
Configuration management
The goals of configuration management include:
Accounting management
Accounting is often referred to as billing management. The goal is to gather usage statistics forusers. Using the statistics the users can be billed and usage quota can be enforced.
RADIUS, TACACS and Diameter are examples of protocols commonly used for accounting. For non-billed networks, “administration” replaces “accounting”. The goals of administration are to administer the set of authorized users by establishing users, passwords, and permissions, and to administer the operations of the equipment such as by performing software backup and synchronization.
Performance management
Performance management enables the manager to prepare the network for the future, as well as to determine the efficiency of the current network, for example, in relation to the investments done to set it up. The network performance addresses the throughput, percentage utilization, error rates and response times areas. By collecting and analysing performance data, the network health can be monitored. Trends can indicate capacity or reliability issues before they become service affecting. Performance thresholds can be set in order to trigger an alarm. The alarm would be handled by the normal fault management process (see above). Alarms vary depending upon the severity.
Security management
Security management is the process of controlling access to assets in the network. Data security can be achieved mainly with authentication and encryption. Authorization to it configured with OS and DBMS access control settings…

What is DHCP?
A. Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
B. Dedicated Host Configuration Protocol
C. Dynamic Host Control Protocol
D. Predecessor to BOOTP
Correct Answer: A
Section: Management – Operations Explanation
DHCP (Dynamic Host Control Protocol) – Provides IP address, mask, gateway, DNS address, and TFTP address

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