2013 Latest Cisco 350-001 Exam Section 2: Hardware (8 Questions)
QUESTION NO: 1
What device can function as a Wireless Domain Server capable of RF aggregation?
E. All of the above
Cisco SWAN Wireless Domain Services (WDS) is a collection of Cisco IOS Software features that expand WLAN client mobility, simplify WLAN deployment and management, and enhance WLAN security. These services-supported today on access points, Cisco and Cisco Compatible client devices, and the Cisco Catalyst 6500 Series WLSM, and other Cisco LAN switches and routers in 2005-include radio management aggregation, fast secure roaming, client tracking, and WAN link remote site survivability.
Cisco SWAN WDS radio management aggregation supports RF managed services such as rogue access point detection for WLAN threat defense, interference detection, assisted site surveys, and self-healing WLANs.
QUESTION NO: 2 You are in the planning stages for the new TestKing wireless network, and are determining the types of antennas that should be utilized. Which of the following are four basic antenna types that can be used?
A. Dipole, non-pole, ground effect, bipole
B. Omnidirectional, patch, yagi, parabola
C. High gain, omni, point to point, point to multi-point
D. Wall mount, mast mount, pole mount, window mount
E. Directional, omni-directional, dipole, distributed
The basic antenna types and their descriptions are provided below:
: An omnidirectional antenna provides a 360-degree radiation pattern. This type of antenna is used when coverage in all directions is required and when communicating with wireless client devices. Antennas in this category are available in different gain ratings (typically 2.2 to 12 dBi). Directional Antennas
: A directional antenna provides a stronger radiation pattern in a specific direction by focusing the radiation energy to provide a greater coverage distance. Directional antennas include the Yagi antenna, the patch antenna, and the parabolic dish antenna.
QUESTION NO: 3 You have been assigned the task of setting up access points within a building for wireless users. The best position for an Access Point in a corporate wireless network is: (Select the best answer).
A. The center of the building
B. In a position determined by a site survey
C. At the edges of the building
D. At the edge of the coverage area shown by the site survey in the ceiling or the floor
E. Away from any metal or glass
Because of differences in component configuration, placement, and physical environment, every network application is a unique installation. Before installing the system, you should perform a site survey to determine the optimum utilization of networking components and to maximize range, coverage, and network performance. Consider the following operating and environmental conditions when performing a site survey:
Data rates – Sensitivity and range are inversely proportional to data bit rates. The maximum radio range is achieved at the lowest workable data rate. A decrease in receiver threshold sensitivity occurs as the radio data increases.
Antenna type and placement – Proper antenna configuration is a critical factor in maximizing radio range. As a general rule, range increases in proportion to antenna height.
Physical environment – Clear or open areas provide better radio range than closed or filled areas. Also, the less cluttered the work environment, the greater the range.
Obstructions – A physical obstruction such as metal shelving or a steel pillar can hinder performance of the client adapter. Avoid locating the workstation in a location where there is a metal barrier between the sending and receiving antennas.
Building materials – Radio penetration is greatly influenced by the building material used in construction. For example, drywall construction allows greater range than concrete blocks. Metal or steel construction is a barrier to radio signals.
QUESTION NO: 4 A new Cisco Wirless network is being installed in a TestKing location, and you need to determine the best antenna to be used. What is the fundamental difference between an omni-directional and directional antenna?
A. Cisco omni-directional antennas always have the letter “0” in their part number.
B. Omni-directionla antennas always look like straight rods.
C. Directional antennas always look like a dish.
D. Omni-directional antennas distribute RF energy in a relatively even manner in most directions while directional antennas uswe most of the available RF energy in a specific direction with a specific RF coverage shape.
E. There is no real technical difference, omni-directional and directional antennas are both dipoles.
Explanation: Omnidirectional Antennas
An omnidirectional antenna provides a 360-degree radiation pattern. This type of antenna is used when coverage in all directions is required and when communicating with wireless client devices. Antennas in this category are available in different gain ratings (typically 2.2 to 12 dBi).
A directional antenna provides a stronger radiation pattern in a specific direction by focusing the radiation energy to provide a greater coverage distance. Directional antennas include the Yagi antenna, the patch antenna, and the parabolic dish antenna. Parabolic dishes have very high gain (typically 21 dBi) along with a very narrow radiation angle (typically 12.5 degrees) and must be accurately aimed at the other antenna. Yagi antennas have high gain (typically 13.5 dBi) and a wider radiation angle (typically 25 to 30 degrees). Yagi antennas must also be properly aimed at the other antenna. Patch antennas have high gain (typically 6 dBi) and a relatively broad radiation angle. The patch antenna is more tolerant of orientation, but must still be positioned to face the direction of the other antenna.
QUESTION NO: 5 You need to purchase a number of Wi-Fi handsets for the TestKing network and need to compare and contrast the different options. Identify the primary Wi-Fi voice handset vendors other than Cisco:
Wireless handset pioneer SpectraLink is the most sought-after partner in the VoWi-Fi industry. PBX vendors want to offer a range of handset options, and SpectraLink’s product line includes everything from small, stripped-down models to ruggedized devices with push-to-talk capabilities. Now that Symbol Technologies is focused on voice-enabling mobile terminals, the choices have pretty much come down to reselling SpectraLink’s handsets or building your own, or using Cisco. SpectraLink recently enhanced its 802.11 offerings with a docking station that includes an integrated speakerphone and charging cradle. The vendor boasts another asset in its SpectraLink Voice Priority protocol, which is supported by established vendors and WLAN start-ups alike. Reference: http://www.networkworld.com/research/2004/0503vowifi.html
QUESTION NO: 6 The TestKing WLSE has detected numerous rogue AP’s within the network. How does the WLSE determine that an AP is a rogue AP?
A. The AP’s SSID does not exist in the WLSE database of know BSSIDs.
B. The AP’s BSSID does not exist in the WLSE database of know BSSIDs.
C. The AP does not respond to SNMP Queries.
D. The AP can not be discovered through CDP.
E. A CCX client reports the AP as rogue.
The WLSE determines whether an AP is a rogue by performing the following steps:
While Radio Monitoring is enabled, the APs report the BSSIDs of their neighboring APs.
WLSE compares the BSSIDs of the APs with those in the managed list. Any AP not in
the managed list is considered to be rogue and a fault is reported.
After a rogue AP has been detected by WLSE:
The WLSE receives frame reports from the reporting and scanning APs. These reports contain the MAC addresses of any clients associated with the rogue AP.
WLSE tries to locate the MAC addresses of both the client and the rogue in the switches via a CAM table search (using the approach described in the following note) to determine which port is forwarding packets to the client via the rogue.
QUESTION NO: 7 When comparing the differences between fast secure roaming options within a wireless network, what is the major difference between L2 and L3 fast secure roaming?
A. L3 roaming is faster than L2 roam.
B. L3 roaming requires extra hardware other than the access points and WDS.
C. L2 roaming is more secure than a L3 roam.
D. L3 roaming is required for IP telephony.
E. L2 roaming is standardized, where as L3 roaming is not.
Networks are normally partitioned into discrete L2 domains corresponding to Internet
Protocol (IP) subnets. Thispartitioning and the difference between L2 and Layer 3 (L3)
roaming are illustrated in the figure below.
Layer 2 and Layer 3 Roaming:
L2 roaming occurs when a WLAN client moves between wireless access points that are part of the same IP subnet. A L3 roam occurs when the client roams to an access point in a different subnet. Mobile IP capability is required to provide seamless roaming across L3 subnet boundaries. Every L3 roam is preceded by a L2 link-layer roam. With layer 2 fast secure roaming, only an access point and the WDS is required. As can be seen in the diagram above, layer 3 FSR requires additional layer 3 devices.
QUESTION NO: 8
The TestKing wireless network administrator must determine the correct antenna to use. In most cases, where should a directional antenna be installed versus an omni-directional antenna?
A. Lecture theaters, especially where the ceilings are higher than 10 meters
B. Convention halls where the ceilings are higher than 10 meters
C. Hallways where coverage into adjacent areas is not desired
D. Point to point outdoor links
E. All of the above
F. None of the above
Cisco offers several different styles of antennas for use with both access points and bridges in the 2.4 GHz product line, as well as the 5 GHz BR1400 bridge. Every antenna offered for sale has been FCC-approved. Each type of antenna will offer different coverage capabilities. As the gainof an antenna increases, there is some tradeoff to its coverage area. Usually gain antennas offer longer coverage distances, but only in a certain direction. The radiation patterns below will help to show the coverage areas of the styles of antennas that Cisco offers: omnidirectional, yagis, and patch antennas.
An omnidirectional antenna (Figure 2) is designed to provide a 360-degree radiation pattern. This type of antenna is used when coverage in all directions from the antenna is required. The standard 2.14dBi “Rubber Duck” is one style of omnidirectional antenna. Figure 2. Omnidirectional Antenna:
Directional antennas come in many different styles and shapes. An antenna does not offer
transmitter. By redirecting this energy, it has the effect of providing more energy in one
direction, and less energy in all other directions. As the gain of a directional antenna
increases, the angle of radiation usually decreases, providing a greater coverage distance,
but with a reduced coverage angle. Directional antennas include yagi antennas (Figure 4),
patch antennas (Figure 3), and parabolic dishes. Parabolic dishes have a very narrow RF
energy path and the installer must be accurate in aiming these at each other.
Figure 3. Directional Patch Antenna:
Recommendations for some common installation environments are outlined below:
typically provides the best overall coverage. Of course, this also depends upon the height of the racking, material on the rack, and ability to locate the antenna at this height. Mounting the antenna higher will sometimes actually reduce coverage, as the angle of radiation from the antenna is more outward than down. The antenna should be placed in the center of the desired coverage cell and in an open area for best performance. In cases where the radio unit will be located against a wall, a directional antenna such as a patch or yagi can be used for better penetration of the area. The coverage angle of the antenna will affect the coverage area.
areas depending on the location of the radio device. However, in a back corner office a patch antenna may provide better coverage. It can be mounted to the wall above most obstructions for best performance. Coverage of this type antenna depends on the surrounding environment.
Experience has shown that omnidirectional antennas mounted just below the ceiling girders or just below the drop ceiling typically provide the best coverage (this will vary with stocking, type of material, and building construction). The antenna should be placed in the center of the desired coverage cell and in an open area for best performance. In cases where the radio unit will be located in a corner, or at one end of the building, a directional antenna such as a patch or yagican be used for better penetration of the area. Also, for areas that are long and narrow-such as long rows of racking-a directional antennaat one end may provide better coverage. The radiation angle of the antennas will also affect the coverage area.
Point-to-Point-When connecting two points together (such as a wireless bridge), the distance, obstructions, and antenna location must be considered. If the antennas can be mounted indoors and the distance is very short (several hundred feet), the standard dipole or mast mount 5.2dBiomnidirectional may be used. An alternative is to use two patch antennas. For very long distances (1/2 mi. or more), directional high-gainantennas must be used. These antennas should be installed as high as possible, and above obstructions
aligned so that their main radiated power lobes are directed at each other. With a line-of-site configuration, distances of up to 25 miles at 2.4 GHz and 12 miles at 5 GHz can be reached using parabolic dish antennas, if a clear line-of-site ismaintained. With the use of directional antennas, fewer interference possibilities exist and there is less possibility of causing interference to anyone else.
several remote points), the use of an omnidirectional antenna at the main communication point must be considered. The remote sites can use a directional antenna that is directed at the main point antenna.
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